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F215

startofdata[Protein Synthesis]Transcription,DNA copied to mRNA using mRNA Polymerase.Translation,Ribosome reading mRNA and producing protein.mRNA,messenger RNA - single stranded complementary to Template.Ribosome,Site of protein synthesis - small subunit.tRNA,transfer RNA which carries amino acid and anticodon.Codon,three nucleotides on mRNA.Amino acid,Monomer of protein-specific R group.Peptide bond,Bonds between two amino acids - Condensation/Hydrolysys.;[Mutations]Mutation,A change in the amount of the arrangement of genetic material in a call.Mutagen,Chemical which cause mutations.Frame Shift,Triplet coding is moved along.Substitution,One nucleotide replaces another.Misense Mutation,Wrong amino acid selected.No sense mutation,Creates an invalid or stop codon.Silent mutation,No effect on protein.Point mutation,Mutation at a single point.;[DNA]Gene,A length of DNA which codes for a specific polypeptide.Chromosome,A full length of DNA.Activated RNA nucleotide,3 phosphate groups which break off to release energy for sugar phosphate backbone.Somatic cell,Adult cell.Germ cell,Gamates.;[Operons]I Regulator gene,Always on-codes for repressor.P Promotor gene,RNA polymerase binds here to start transcription.O Operator gene,Repressor binds here-blocks promotor.Control genes,P and O-Dont code for proteins.Structural genes,Code for the enzymes.Lactose-repressor-Complex,Stops repressor binding to Operator.RNA polymerase-Beta galactoseidase-Lactose Permease,Binds to promotor to start transcriptase-Breaks lactose down-Allows lactose into cell.;[Genetics]Genetype,Genetic make up of the organism.Phenotype,The gene characteristic that is expressed.Alleles,The variation of a gene.Homozygous - Heterozygous,Same alleles - 2 differnt alleles of same gene.Linkage,2 or more genes on same chromosome which are inherited together.Dominant - Recessive,Allele which is always expressed - Allele which is only expressed when no dominant.Codominant,Both alleles contribute to phenotype.;[Meiosis];[Hardy Weinberg]P,Frequency of Dominant allele.Q,Frequency of Recessive allele.Formulae,P squared plus 2PQ plus Q squared equals one - P plus Q equals 1.Population,A collection of individuals of the same species which can interbred to produce fertile offspring.,.Gene pool,All of the genes.Allele frequency,The number of times an allele occurs within the gene pool.P squared and Q squared,aa - Homo recessive and AA - Homo dominant.;[Enzyme Biotech]Primary metabolites,Molecules produced from normal cell growth.Secondary metabolites,Not produced from normal growth but in times of stress.Immobilisation - Absorbtion,Trapped on surface with weak bonds - downstream processing needed.Covalent bonding,Enzymes trapped with strong covalent bonds.Entrapment,Sodium alignate or cellulose fibres - reduced reaction rates.Membrane seperation,Partially permeable membrane holds enzymes on one side.Asepsis,A lack of UNWANTED microorganisms.;endofdata